Foreign Residents – Voting in Portugal

Frequently Asked Questions

Expats may vote in local municipal and European elections as long as they are registered in the Portuguese national electoral census. In addition to all Portuguese citizens, Brazilian nationals with a citizen card or other viable ID card and those from the following countries may also vote in Portuguese elections: 

‑     Citizens of member states of the European Union;

–    United Kingdom when resident prior to Brexit;

‑   Brazil and Cape Verde;

‑ Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Iceland, Norway, New Zealand, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela.

1.   I am a foreign resident in Portugal. Am I allowed to vote?

Yes, as long as you first enrol in the Portuguese Voter Registration and are a citizen of one of the above mentioned countries.

2.   Is voter registration mandatory?

Voter registration is optional.

3.   In which elections may foreign nationals exercise their right to vote?

Registered foreign residents over 18 years of age have the right to exercise their right to vote in Municipal (every 4 years) and European (every 5 years) elections.

4.   How do I register to vote in Portugal?

You must go to the local parish (“Junta de Freguesia”) that corresponds to the address indicated in your Residency Permit (“Residência”).

5.   I moved recently. What should I do to transfer my voter registration?

You must update your address on your Residency Permit. Your voter registration will be transferred automatically. Note that if you register during a period when voter registration is suspended, you should vote in the parish corresponding to your previous address.

6.   I have moved address but have not yet updated my “Residência”. Where should I vote?

You should vote in the town where you are still registered that corresponds to the previous address. Only with the update of the “Residência” does the transfer of voter registration happen automatically.

7.   When is voter registration suspended?

During the 60 days prior to election day. No new registrations or transfers may be made during this period. Only changes are permitted resulting from a complaint or an appeal can be made between the 34th and 39th day before the election. If you update your residency at a time when the registration is suspended, you should vote in the parish where you were registered prior to moving.

8.   How can I find out where I am registered?

You can get this information at any time, even on election day, as follows:

‑   On the Internet at;

‑   Via SMS (free) to 3838, with the message “RE (space) CC / Residency number (space) date of birth = yyyymmdd. Ex: “RE 7424071 19820803”;

‑   At the parish council office of your place of residency.

The Multibanco Machine swallowed my card! What to do? 


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The Multibanco system has been around for 35 years and continues to be a widely used resource by those who resort to the most varied banking movements in Portugal. Despite the increasingly frequent use of homebanking, which, due to its efficiency and security, gains more and more followers, the use of the Multibanco network continues to grow. Multibanco offers about 60 features. Many of them are aimed at operations that far exceed account management, such as paying for purchases or acquiring travel tickets. 

In the past two years, the network has even broken usage records. According to data from the Multibanco website, in the first half of 2020, more than 717 million transactions were carried out at ATM’s (Automatic Teller Machine) and TPA (Automatic Payment Terminal), involving around €36 billion. At the moment, the Multibanco network has approximately 12 thousand ATMs, more than 337 thousand TPA and more than 23.7 million cards in circulation. 

Reliable and with a wide service network, Multibanco is not completely immune to incidents, or apparent malfunctions.  

How to Solve Problems at the ATM 

The Multibanco Machine retained the card after an operation 

You should immediately contact the bank that issued the card which may have expired. The machine may also have malfunctioned. But there may also be a risk of fraud, especially if, at the same time, a message appears to remove the card. Without losing sight of the card, seek support from the bank agency. 

Despite being debited from the account, the withdrawal amount was not waived 

If the cash is not dispensed, there will be an automatic correction of that amount. If not, you must file a complaint with the bank issuing the card with proof of receipt. 

The withdrawal did not return the full amount requested, despite being debited from the account

You must make a claim with your bank, accompanied by the transaction receipt and identify the place, date and time when the transaction occurred. 

You made a withdrawal, but Multibanco did not provide a receipt

If you need proof of withdrawal, you can obtain a duplicate copy of the receipt, using the card with which you made the transaction and selecting one of these paths: 

Consultations> Consultations Operations Card in MB> 2nd copy of receipt> Enter the desired date and Select one of the operations presented. 

Consultations> Consultations Operations Card in MB> Consultations prior to a date> Enter the desired date 

Bank Notes were not collected in time 

The bank security protocol requires a limited time for the collection of banknotes by the customer. If the time is exceeded, the machine collects them. The withdrawal amount is regularised in the account but you must register what happened with your bank. 

Dennis Swing Greene
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UK “green” travel list is “gold” for Portugal



British operators anticipate up to a 600% increase in reservations for the Algarve and Madeira. During the upcoming summer tourist season, Turismo de Portugal expects to resume 700 weekly air routes with the United Kingdom that existed before the spread of Covid19. In the Algarve, Easyjet announced another 175 thousand seats for the coming months. British Airways is proposing new routes to Newcastle, Manchester and Edinburgh in addition to online agencies that are growing bookings in triple digits since the UK announcement.

US taxpayers automatically qualify for filing postponement


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Taxation of US citizens

The US government imposes income tax on US persons based on their worldwide income, not residency. The following are considered to be US persons for tax purposes:

  •           A citizen born in the United States or outside with at least one parent who is a US citizen;
  •           A naturalized citizen;
  •           A resident of the United States for tax purposes if they meet either the green card test or the substantial presence test for the calendar year;
  •           Any other person who is not a foreign person.
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Sweden to rescind its tax treaty with Portugal evoking “fiscal injustice”

Sweden wants to tear up an agreement with Portugal and start taxing its pensioners who have chosen to live in Portugal in recent years as fiscal residents. According to the newspaper Public, Sweden plans to revoke the tax treaty signed with Portugal in 2002 and start taxing pensioners who have been exempt from assessment in both countries.

In 2019, the two governments signed an agreement with amendments to the rules that would allow Sweden to tax the pensions of its nationals living in Portuguese territory. Stockholm has already ratified the agreement, but Lisbon still has not.

“The combination of the Portuguese tax regime for Non‑Habitual Residents (RNH) with the tax convention originally signed with Sweden makes Portugal a fiscal paradise for Swedish pensioners.”, declared Swedish Minister of Finance, Magdalena Andersson. “We are submitting this proposal to Parliament. I can withdraw it if the Portuguese Government implements the treaty quickly.”

Asked how much Sweden has lost in tax revenues since 2009, the minister responded that the loss of tax revenues is not the primary reason for tearing up the double tax convention. “The possibility given to wealthier citizens to pay 0 or 10%, while ordinary citizens pay much more, is a fiscal injustice that undermines the credibility of the fiscal system. Some Swedish citizens have an income of millions of euros yet do not pay any tax. The 10% rate is too low and is much less than what a regular pensioner in Portugal pays,” affirmed the Swedish Finance Minister.

Foreign Retirees pay 10% tax on foreign pension income

Since last year, the exemption in Portugal for foreign earned pensions ended. Pensioners who have non‑habitual resident status pay a tax of 10% on retirement benefits paid by their country of origin. The rule does not apply to those who already benefit from NHR or who have already signed up for the status. New taxpayers in Portugal lose their double tax exemption and will be taxed at a rate of 10% on their pensions. The option must be chosen when submitting the declaration during 2021.

Benefits of investing via the Golden Visa investment program in Portugal

– Visa exemption for traveling within the Schengen Area;

– Family reunification even for children studying abroad;

– Applying for permanent residence after 5 years of residency;

– Applying for Portuguese citizenship after 5 years.

– Possibility of applying to Non-Habitual Residency regime.

Opening and Closing a Business Activity


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Whether for profit or pleasure, the truth is that there are many people who choose to be sole traders as a way to make a living. More than one out of five Portuguese workers are self-employed, a percentage that places Portugal within the highest level of entrepreneurs in the EU. For a person to operate as a sole trader, there are some preliminary requirements that must be met with Tax Authority and Social Security Administration before starting up a business operation.

Opening a business activity

If you want to do business as a sole trader, the first step is to communicate your intentions to the Tax Authorities (“A.T.”), even before you launch your business. This is done by registering the Opening of Business Activity Declaration (“Declaração de Início de Actividade”). This step can be done in person at a Finanças office or in a Citizens’ Centre (“Loja de Cidadão”). In these cases, a civil servant guides you through the process to complete the necessary forms and enroll you directly into the system.

Taxpayers should also choose between being assessed in the Simplified Regime or under Standard Accounting procedures. Portuguese tax residents can also open their business activity on the Internet through the Finanças website. To submit a declaration, you must first have a Portuguese Tax Identification Number (“NIF”)as well as your Finanças password (“senha”). Proceed as follows:

Home Services Submit Activity Declarations Opening of Business Activity

An important note: Once you have completed these steps, you can start your business or professional activity after receiving confirmation by post in the form of a “dependability code” that will be sent to your registered address.

Another important point: If you intend to perform a one-off “Isolated Act” rather than exercise an on-going business activity, you are excused from the requirement of submitting an Opening of Business Activity Declaration.

Social Security

Registration for Social Security happens automatically and does not require you to complete any additional forms. If this is your initial registration, you are eligible for a first year exemption from Social Security contributions. Likewise, until your taxable sole trader income surpasses €2,515.32, you will also be exempt. In situations where you accumulate an independent business activity with salaried work or are in receipt a Social Security Old Age pension, you are also excused from Social Security contributions. Standard contributions for Sole traders are at the rate of 29.6%. 

Closing your business activity

It is not at all uncommon for sole traders to cease their business activity yet fail to notify the Tax Authority of the fact. It should not come as a surprise that as far as Finanças is concerned, the activity remains open until reported closed. To wind up your self employment, you should go to an “AT” office, a Citizens’ Centre or to the Finanças website. To close your activity online, proceed to the “AT” website and go though the following steps:

Home Services Submit Activity Declarations Closing a Business Activity

On your next IRS tax return, you must refer to the cessation of activity in Annex B. As happens with the opening of a sole trader activity, the cessation will be reported automatically to Social Security by Finanças and no further declaration is necessary on your part. Failure to close your business with result in ongoing assessment based on previous activity.

Dual Citizenship in Portugal


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Those who are contemplating taking on Portuguese citizenship often wish to retain their nationality of origin. Fortunately, Portugal recognises and permits dual nationality. There can be a variety of reasons for taking on Portuguese citizenship:

  • Lifelong access to state healthcare;
  • For British nationals, certainty regarding their status in the EU after “Brexit”;
  • The ability to move freely around Europe and enjoy the benefits of being an EU citizen;
  • Being able to vote in national elections.

Any foreign citizen aged 18 or over may apply for naturalisation once having formally resided for six or more years in the country. As EU nationals, this requires having held temporary residency in Portugal for a period of 5 years, then taking permanent residency through the local SEF office (Serviço de Estrangeiros e Fronteiras).


Central to the naturalisation process is a notarised and translated copy of the Birth Certificate issued in the country of origin.

A criminal record certificate, translated and apostilled, is also required from Portugal, from the country of origin and from any other country of residence. In Portugal, the certificate is issued at the local Tribunal. For UK nationals, application can be made online:

Then choose the ‘Police Certificates’ tab.

The Process

Citizenship application is handled by the IRN (Instituto dos Registos e do Notariado) through the local Conservatória. Depending on the nature of one’s situation, there are appropriate forms available in Portuguese only on the IRN website: alidade/impressos-nacionalidade

Language Test

Applicants must pass a Portuguese language proficiencytest, known as CIPLE – A2, except for those who have been married to a Portuguese national for more than 3 years.

Application for the test should be made online at least one month in advance. To help prepare, there is a book of model tests available from the following link: ao-certificacao/

CIPLE measures the basic ability to interact in a limited number of predictable daily communication situations. The exam consists of three parts:

  • Reading comprehension and written interactions
  • Oral comprehension
  • Oral production and interactions
Citizenship by marriage

If married to a Portuguese national, citizenship may be obtained after 3 years of residency. In this case, the language test is usually waived.

If you are in a cohabiting relationship with a Portuguese citizen but not married (commonly referred to as “união de facto”), it is still possible to obtain Portuguese citizenship once the union has been officially recognised. While there is no formal process for registration for cohabiting couples, the status must still be proven. The couple should request a declaration from the local parish council, stating that they have lived together for at least two years. Two local witnesses are necessary. Translated copies of the birth certificate will also be necessary. In this case, no minimum required period of residency exists prior to applying for citizenship. However, authorities may require a Portuguese language proficiencytest as well as documented links which demonstrate integration into Portuguese society.


All foreign language documents should be translated into Portuguese and certified. Once all of the paperwork has been assembled and checked, application should be hand delivered or sent by post via registered mail to:

Conservatória dos Registos Centrais

Rua Rodrigo da Fonseca, 200 1099-003 Lisboa

or visit the local “Conservatórias do Registo Civil”. The process usually takes around 3-6 months.

Aggregate vs Autonomous Reporting Options


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When assessing Company profits, taxation occurs in a two-stage process: first, the Company pays Corporate Income Tax on its profits, then Shareholders pay Individual Income Tax on these distributed profits (now called dividends). This assessment procedure is called “economicdouble taxation. Almost all countries in the EU have adopted one of several methods to eliminate “economic” double taxation-some via the Company, some via the Individual. Regardless of the method, the end result should be the same: dividends reported by the Individual should be after the elimination of any “economic” double taxation.

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